Contributions to the biological and physical sciences of the Pacific area are welcomed from authors in all parts of the world. Manuscripts should be addressed to the editor-in-chief, Curtis C. Daehler (, Department of Botany, 3190 Maile Way,University of Hawai‘i at Mānoa, Honolulu, HI 96822–1888, USA. The editor-in-chief will acknowledge receipt of each paper, arrange for its evaluation, and notify the author as soon as possible of the decision reached. Pacific Science is published four times per year (January, April, July, and October).

Manuscript Form

Electronic submission—E-mail the double-spaced manuscript as a single file (including all text, figures, tables, and appendices)to No hard copy is required for e-mail submissions. However, if the file size exceeds 20 Mb please follow procedures given for electronic (file-drop) submission.

File-drop electronic submissions—For manuscripts larger than 20 MB, please upload the file to the University of Hawaii File-Drop System at  Please note that very high resolution images are generally not needed for the initial review; therefore, in most cases a manuscript can be easily reduced below 20 MB and submitted  by email, after reducing the figure resolution.


Editorial style conforms to specifications set forth for scientific publications in The Chicago Manual of Style, 16th edition (Chicago: the University of Chicago Press, 2010). Spelling, with a few exceptions, conforms to Merriam-Webster’s Collegiate Dictionary,11th ed. Abbreviations of periodicals listed in bibliographies should be those recommended in the BIOSIS Serial Sources. This publication maybe ordered from the following address: 2100 Arch Street, Philadelphia,PA 19103-1399, USA. Manuscripts should follow the guidelines outlined here; those that do not may be returned for revision before review.

Manuscripts are copy edited and typeset electronically from electronic files supplied by authors (with very few exceptions). If your manuscript is accepted for publication, you will be asked to submit electronic files for your manuscript that include the text, tables, and figure captions in word-processor format (MS Word compatible or Rich Text formats preferred) and high-resolution versions of your figures (at least 300 DPI).

Format of Manuscript

Title: Provide a running head (short title), the title(capitals and lower case), name of author(s), and footnote(s) showing professional affiliation and address. Footnote 1 is reserved for the date of manuscript acceptance and should read “Manuscript accepted___________”. Footnote 1 may also include a statement acknowledging grant support. The superscript 1 for this footnote should immediately follow the title. When the common or scientific name of an organism is used in the title, include a taxonomic identifier in parentheses [e.g.,(Polychaeta: Sabellidae)].

Abstract: Provide an informative abstract of no more than 250 words. The abstract should be a summary of key information.

Formatting Text: Center all headings. Use italics for Latin names. Foreign words and terms, including place names, should be spelled with appropriate diacritical marks (e.g., glottal stop, macron). Use the tab key to indent (not spacebar). Use only one space after a period or semicolon. Use an em dash (or two hyphens) for a dash (no space on either side). Include no extra space between paragraphs. Use no underlining, boldface, small caps, or other displays. Never use all caps (acronyms excepted). Do not justify the right margin. Do not use hanging indents in the text. Do not use returns within paragraphs. Do not use “soft” hyphens of hyphenation programs (avoid end-of-line breaks). Use Times New Roman font in 12 point for everything.

Sections: For standard research papers, sections should be as follows: introduction (silent heading), Materials and Methods,Results, Discussion (or combined "Results and Discussion" only for short manuscripts), Acknowledgments, and Literature Cited. A Conclusions heading may be used at the end of the Discussion, at the discretion of the author.

Text Citations: Cite references by author and date. For example, “moves through a forested area (Walker 1995).” Use “and” (not an ampersand) when citing references by two authors, and “et al.” for more than two authors, with no comma between author and year. When two or more references are cited together, arrange chronologically and separate by commas. Separate multiple references by one author with commas.Distinguish multiple citations by the same author in the same year by letters of the alphabet (Smith 2002a,b).

Numbers: Spell out numbers from one through nine, except for decimals, fractions, and when used with units of measurement; use numerals for numbers 10 and above. Write out ordinal numbers (second,nineteenth century). Use a comma for four-digit numbers (e.g., 1,000). Repeat all digits and use an en dash in ranges (e.g., 257–260, not 257–69). Use the numeral “1” for one (never the letter “l”) and the numeral “0” for zero (never the letter “O”). Use capitals and periods in dates (A.D., B.C.).

Special Characters: Use type to show italics (not underlining), subscripts and superscripts, and accented letters (letters with diacritics). If your manuscript includes special characters unavailable in your word-processing program, you may scan the hard copy and highlight them (colored ink) in the digital file. Or you may use an alphanumeric code of your own choosing (e.g., resum<acute-e> for resuméa<tilde-n>o for año); be sure to submit a listing of all such codes used.

Measurements: Use metric measurements. Abbreviate unit of measurement (including time) when preceded by a quantity (e.g., 4 cm, 24yr) but do not use a period.

Reporting Requirements for Statistical Analysis: Authors are responsible for the statistical method selected and for the accuracy of their data. All statistical methods must be described in Materials and Methods with appropriate references. To present a test statistic in the text, give the symbol, degrees of freedom, value of the statistic,and probability level (e.g., for ANOVA, report F value, df, P level; for regression, report the correlation coefficient and slope ± SEM and P level).

Literature Cited: List references in alphabetical order by first author. List first or only author by surname, and initial(s); cite subsequent authors of the reference by initial(s) and surname. Include space between initials. Group multiple publications by same author(s) in chronological order. Use a 3-em dash instead of author(s) names for subsequent publications. Do not italicize journal titles or book titles.Examples:

Athens, J. S. 1997. Hawaiian native lowland vegetation in prehistory. Pages 248–270 in P. V. Kirch and T. L. Hunt, eds. Historical ecology in the Pacific Islands: Prehistoric environmental and landscape change. Yale University Press, New Haven.

Kobayashi, S. R., and M. G. Hadfield. 1996. An experimental study of growth and reproduction in the Hawaiian tree snails Achatinella mustelina and Partulina redfieldii (Achatinellinae). Pac. Sci. 50:339–354.

Maragos, J. E. 1972. A study of the ecology of Hawaiian reef corals. Ph.D. diss., University of Hawai‘i at Mānoa, Honolulu.
———.1995. Revised checklist of extant shallow-water stony coral species from Hawai‘i (Cnidaria: Anthozoa: Scleractinia). Bishop Mus. Occas. Pap.42:54–55.

Maragos, J., and D. Gulko, eds. 2002. Coral reef ecosystems of the Northwestern Hawaiian Islands: Interim results emphasizing the 2000 surveys. U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service and Hawai‘i Department of Land and Natural Resources, Honolulu.

McClanahan, T., N. Polunin, and T. Done. 2002. Ecological states and the resilience of coral reefs. Conserv. Ecol. 6 (2): 18,

Tables and Illustrations

For review purposes, text, tables, figure captions, and figures can be merged into a single file. Be sure that each table is on a separate page. In the text, indicate approximate placement of tables and figures, following the paragraph where cited, as follows: <<Table1 near here>> <<Fig. 1 near here>>

Plan illustrations to fit the printed page size, 5-1/2 by 7-3/4 inches, including space for a caption at the bottom of the illustration.The final printed size of figures and tables is determined and limited by the format of the journal—each will be one column (2-5/8") or two columns (5-1/2") wide or, occasionally, will be placed broadside(7-7/8") on a page. Number each figure and table separately in the order in which they are cited in the manuscript. Place the captions in the manuscript file, before the tables.

If original artwork is submitted, it must be executed in black ink and must be no larger than 8-1/2" by 11". Crop photographs to include only essential detail. If several photographs are used for a single figure, they should be grouped to fit the page width, with identifying letters. The caption should identify each photograph that occurs in a figure. Illustrations in color will be accepted only if the author bears the costs of reproduction of such photographs.

Lettering or other detail should be large enough that when printed the smallest letters or symbols will be at least 1 mm high; lines should be thick enough and spaced widely enough so that they will not fade or run together when reduced. Use Sans Serif fonts whenever possible (e.g., Arial). Computer-generated graphics are preferred. An electronic graphic needs to be a TIFF or EPS file with a resolution of at least 300 dpi at the final size. A low-resolution JPEG is not acceptable. Fonts must be embedded or provided if an EPS file is sent.

Provide suitable scale or legends within the illustration. Do not repeat information from the caption on the illustration or in the legend.


Please proofread carefully. Author's proof should be corrected immediately and returned at once to the Journals Department, University of Hawai‘i Press. Remember that extensive changes in proof are costly and therefore should be limited to correction of printer's errors and errors in spelling, punctuation, grammar, and/or fact. Please print legibly and mark your changes in red ink in the margin, not between the lines.Answer all queries, but do not erase queries or comments already on the proof. Make your corrections according to The Chicago Manual of Style (16th edition). A PDF of your article will be provided for you to indicate corrections electronically.

You may also send your corrections via fax (808-988-6052) or email (; fax only the pages that need corrections. Corrections can also be sent by mail, but please provide page number, column, paragraph, and line number with the correction. If your proof does not reach us by the time, we will proceed with publication without your changes. In any case, a professional proofreader will have carefully proofread your article.


Offprints may be ordered on a form that is included with the author's proof. Minimum order is 50 offprints, and covers are not available. Offprints ship 4 to 6 weeks after the publication of the issue. Orders for offprints and all correspondence concerning offprints should be sent directly to the publisher: Journals Department, University of Hawai‘i Press, 2840 Kolowalu Street, Honolulu, HI 96822-1888, USA.

Page Charges

Authors with institutional or grant support are assessed a flat publication charge of $55 per page. Individuals who do not have institutional or grant support are asked to pay a reduced personal rate of $10 per page to help support the journal. If such charges would impose a substantial financial hardship, an additional subsidy or a page-charge waiver may be requested from the editor-in-chief, Curtis Daehler. The ability to pay page charges is not a factor when evaluating manuscripts for publication.

Authors may elect to have their article freely available online. If you select this option, you will pay an Open Access fee instead of the page charge fee (noted above). The one time payment is $1,800 which allows us to post the article freely available in BioOne and Project MUSE and include it in the print issue of the journal.

Color Printing Charges

If authors wish to include color images in the print issue, there is a one time fee of $250 to cover the additional costs of color printing. Otherwise, all images are printed in black/white or grayscale.

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