Macadamia Integrated Pest Management: IPM of Insects and Mites Attacking Macadamia Nuts in Hawaii
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98pp. January 2002
Macadamia Integrated Pest Management: IPM of Insects and Mites Attacking Macadamia Nuts in Hawaii
Author: Jones, Vincent P.;
Part 1. Introduction to macadamia pest management
Insect growth and development; Types of insect damageHow insects become pests; Integrated pest managementEconomic thresholds, economic injury levels;Natural control vs. biological control; Natural enemiesBiological control: Types, Success rates for classical biologicalcontrol, Environmental concerns;Monitoring programs: Importance, Definitions, Design of monitoringand methods, Types of samples, Data recording;Insecticide and miticide application: Orchard handguns, Backpackmist blowers, Air-blast sprayers, Aerial application, Inspectionand calibration, Spray solution pH, Hazard to beesPesticide regulations

Part 2. Horticultural factors important inintegrated pest management
Flowering and fruiting patterns; Nut maturation processNormal harvest operations; Modified harvest operationsCultivar susceptibility; Fertilizer; Pruning; PollinationAlternate hostes, ground covers; Management of pests in nurseries

Part 3. Major pest insects
Overview of pest statusPatterns of damage
Tropical nut borer
History; Life cycle and description; Identification; Alternate hosts;Damage; Time of damage; Monitoring; Cultivar susceptibilitySticktight nuts; Management strategies: General, Harvestmodification, Early season, harvest, Mechanical harvest,Use of ethephon, Natural enemies, Use of pesticidesNew orchard management; Economics of pest controlGeneral trends
Southern green stinkbug
History; Life cycle and description; Life history in macadamiaorchards; Alternate hosts; Damage; Time and location ofdamage; Monitoring; Cultivar susceptibility;Management strategies;Natural enemies; Chemical control
Koa seedworm, Litchi fruit moth
History; Life history; Identification;Alternate host plants; Damage;Monitoring: Adult sampling, Distribution ofeggs and damage in the canopy,Sampling larvae and damage; Cultivarsusceptibility; Managementstrategies; Behavior-modifying chemicals;Natural enemies; Chemical control

Part 4. Secondary pests
Broad mite, Red and black flat mite,Katydids, Redbanded thrips, Hawaiianflower thrips, Black citrus aphid

Part 5. Pests of macadamia not yet found in Hawaii
Macadamia felted coccid,Fruitspotting bug, Banana-spottingbug, Macadamia leafminer,Macadamia flower caterpillar,Macadamia twig girdler,Twospotted bug, Yellowspotted bug,False coddling moth, Macadamianut borer, Leafcutting ants

Appendixes: 
Heat-driven phenology models;Sequential sampling examples; Monitoring tools;Insect classification;Insects identified on macadamia in HawaiiGlossary of termsFurther readings and references

Distributed for the College of Tropical Agriculture and Human Resources.
Author: Jones, Vincent P.;



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